For many years, and for many applications, copper has long been recognized as an antimicrobial material, used as fungicides, anti-biofouling treatments, and for many other similar purposes. In short, it has been well-recognized that copper inhibits the growth of harmful pathogens - bacteria, moulds, algae, fungi and viruses. More recently, this largely anecdotal awareness has been investigated in many regions of theworld, using the highest-standard laboratory and testing protocols.

The library below is a selection of papers that discuss much of this testing, the US Environmental Protection Agency registration obtained by the Copper Development Association (US) in 2008, and the use of copper surfaces in some applications to minimize and assist in the control of harmful bacteria and pathogens.

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